...In-text Citations

This page presents a selection of examples of in-text citation using the Harvard academic referencing system.  The resource is designed to support accuracy and consistency when engaging with a range of sources.  Constructive feedback welcomed, since this page is under development.  Subscribe or check back for edits and updates. See also ...Reference Lists.


In-text Citation...


A specific idea from a publication with a single author: 
According to Bell (2010, p. 23) the most important part of the research process is…
A specific idea discussed over multiple pages, by a single author: 
...and thus teachers become reluctant to effect reflective imitation (Schön, 1987, pp. 120–121).
The theme of a paper or article: 
In a recent study (Evans, 2010) the qualifications of school-leavers were analysed...
The theme of a paper or article, citing more than three authors: 
New research on health awareness (Tipton et al., 2009, p. 124) suggests that... 
The theme of a book:
Tripp (2012) argues that critical incident analysis promotes professional judgement...
A passage from a book, citing two or three authors: 
It has been found that ‘newly qualified teachers are more likely to become involved in extracurricular activities than their long serving colleagues’ (Hill, Smith and Reid, 2010, p. 142). 
A passage from a book, with direct reference to its author: 
Swaffield believes that critical friendship is 'a versatile and potentially powerful approach to supporting leadership and school improvement' (2004, p. 296).
An idea or theme common to a number of sources, by various authors:
It is widely accepted that the quality of a country’s teacher workforce is the most significant factor affecting pupil achievement (Good et al., 2006; McKinsey, 2007, 2010; DfE, 2010, 2013; Musset, 2010). 
Many conceptions of professional knowledge and learning have been proposed (e.g. Argyris and Schön, 1974; Lave and Wenger, 1991; Wenger 1998)...

Final Notes...

  • Where an author’s work is either quoted or paraphrased, a citation including a page number is required (so keep a note when taking notes from a particular volume).
  • The author’s initial is not used in-text. (Nor is the author's first name usually used in academic work.) 
  • Commas separate the author's surname from the date, and the date from the page number in the Harvard system.
  • If a publication has more than 3 authors cite the 1st name listed followed by et al. All authors should be acknowledged in the reference list.
  • Some publications use a similar style, replacing commas with a colon. E.g. ...requires a capacity for ‘cognitive risk-taking’ (Schön 1987: 139), and a significant level of trust...
  • Some systems require multiple sources to be mentioned chronologically, as above. Others require alphabetical inclusion, e.g. (DfE, 2010, 2013; Good et al., 2006; McKinsey, 2007, 2010; Musset, 2010).

References and further reading

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2010) Cite Them Right: the essential referencing guide. 8th edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. (See: http://www.citethemrightonline.com/)

Research in Teacher Education (no date) Instructions for Authors. Available at: http://www.uel.ac.uk/rite/instructions-for-authors/ (Accessed: 25 January 2015).

University of East London (no date) Info skills: How to Harvard reference.
http://infoskills.uelconnect.org.uk/pages/guides/127/how_to_harvard_reference.html (Accessed: 25 January 2015).


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