Academic Citation & Referencing

We've adopted the Harvard referencing system at the University of East London (UEL).  It's a system which emphasizes authors' names and publication dates.  It compiles references alphabetically in a single reference list at the end of a piece of work, rather than utilizing footnotes throughout.  An example of its use can be found below.

As might be expected questions and queries come my way regularly, concerning punctuation, syntax and particular conventions.  So I felt a page collating advice and examples might be just what was needed, to help support writers in using the Harvard system consistently. Examples are provided to demonstrate in-text conventions, and how sources should be referred to in a reference list.  A discussion about referencing one's own reflective journal is also available, here:

View my compiled examples of the Harvard referencing system, here:


Sample Text

Particularly in the early stages of training, pre-service teachers rely heavily on practical input and feedback from their mentor.  Trainees engage their ‘operative attention’ (Schön, 1987, p.165) to develop a practical, propositional knowledge form (Shulman, 1986).  By replicating their mentors' teaching strategies pre-service teachers master practical solutions to well-defined problems (Musset, 2010).  This removes the need for cognitive investment in predictable events (Argyris and Schön, 1974), and allows pre-service teachers to employ tested strategies which, in the broadly unchanging local context of a classroom, will serve them well. 

Reference List

Argyris, C. and Schön, D. (1974) Theory in practice: increasing professional effectiveness. London: Jossey-Bass.

Musset, P. (2010) ‘Initial Teacher Education and Continuing Training Policies in a Comparative Perspective: Current Practices in OECD Countries and a Literature Review on Potential Effects’, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 48. OECD Publishing. doi:10.1787/5kmbphh7s47h-en

Schön, D. A. (1987) Educating the Reflective Practitioner. California: Jossey-Bass.

Shulman, L. S. (1986) ‘Those Who Understand: Knowledge Growth in Teaching’, in Educational Researcher, 15(2), pp. 4-14.